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Report on the total value of domestic rare earth neodymium in China and abroad in years

Seven years ago, in 2011, China produced nearly 100,000 tons of rare earths and consumed 83.11 million tons of rare earths, accounting for 85.8% of the total output. Among them, rare earth permanent magnets are the major consumption areas of rare earths. Last year, the consumption volume was 36,600 tons, accounting for 44.04% of the total consumption of domestic rare earths; the consumption of new materials was 55,000 tons, accounting for 66.2% of the total consumption of domestic rare earths.

In 2011, the total output of the five major new materials in China was 154,600 tons, and the output of rare earth permanent magnets in China was 88,500 tons. Among them, sintered NdFeB neodymium is 83,000 tons, and bonded NdFeB neodymium is only 4,400 tons, accounting for 57.26% of the total output of the five major new materials in China.

In 2011, the price of rare earth raw materials fluctuated greatly, which seriously affected the normal operation of the NdFeB neodymium industry. Due to the addition of speculators and the reluctance of suppliers, the downstream users of permanent magnets collectively panic and carry out reserve purchases, distorting and amplifying the demand.

Due to the violent fluctuations in the price of NdFeB neodymium, the downstream application field has been deeply affected. Many manufacturers have begun to seek alternatives, and have achieved fruitful results, which may affect the operation of the domestic NdFeB neodymium industry in the short term.

Manufacturers are overwhelmed because NdFeB neodymium is different from ordinary magnets and is called "Magnetic King" because of its excellent magnetic properties. NdFeB neodymium is classified into sintered NdFeB neodymium and bonded NdFeB neodymium. Sintered NdFeB neodymium is easily corroded, and the surface needs to be plated. Generally, it is galvanized, nickel, environmentally friendly zinc, environmentally friendly nickel, nickel-copper-nickel, environmentally-friendly nickel-copper-nickel, etc.; bonded NdFeB neodymium is magnetic and corrosion-resistant in all directions.

Sintered NdFeB neodymium permanent magnet materials have excellent magnetic properties and are widely used in electronics, electric machinery, medical equipment, toys, packaging, hardware machinery, aerospace and many other fields. More common applications include permanent magnet motors and speakers. Magnetic separator, computer disk drive, magnetic resonance imaging equipment, etc.

NdFeB neodymium is the most important application area of rare earth.

China's rare earth products are mainly used in rare earth new materials such as rare earth permanent magnet materials, luminescent materials, catalytic materials, hydrogen storage alloys and polishing powders, as well as traditional fields such as metallurgical machinery, petrochemicals, glass ceramics, and agricultural textiles.

Due to the sharp increase in the price of rare earth materials last year, the cost of sintered NdFeB neodymium has increased several times. After the sharp rise in prices, the capital chain of the NdFeB neodymium plant was overwhelmed and the operation faced huge risks.

The price of rare earth materials directly causes the price of NdFeB neodymium to fluctuate drastically. In 2011, after the customers of NdFeB neodymium downstream panicked the order, the price of NdFeB neodymium dropped rapidly, which indirectly led to the uneven production of NdFeB neodymium manufacturers.

Although the price of rare earth has dropped, many manufacturers of NdFeB neodymium, which eventually got the goods at high prices last year, are still holding a wait-and-see attitude. They are not willing to buy raw materials easily. If the price of rare earths continues to drop, there will be no shots at this time. Different from high price, the profit is damaged.

The downstream chaos is used as the upstream raw material of NdFeB neodymium. In January 2011, the price of plutonium was only 280,000 yuan/ton, and the price of barium iron was 1,500 yuan/kg. In June last year, the price of sputum rose directly to 1.6 million yuan / ton, nearly 6 times the increase; the price of sputum soared to 14300 yuan / kg, an increase of nearly 10 times.

Due to the sharp rise in rare earth prices, NdFeB neodymium manufacturers were forced to raise prices, but the price increase has made some downstream customers unacceptable.

Taking MRI equipment as an example, the normal price of a piece of equipment is about 3 million to 4 million yuan, but after the domestic rare earth price soared seven or eight times last year, the original material cost of 1 million yuan became more than 2 million yuan. Had to give up the NdFeB neodymium and replace it with superconducting materials.

The same is true for wind power equipment. When the cost per ton of material rises from 600,000-700,000 yuan to 1.5 million yuan, wind power equipment can only be forced to abandon the excellent performance of NdFeB neodymium and turn to the old method of picking up the magnetic field. .

Due to the high price of NdFeB neodymium, new development projects in automotive motors have stagnated.

Because mature batch products are more price sensitive, gross margins are greatly reduced. The auto parts industry has extremely high requirements for the stability of the supply chain. If the future price cannot be stabilized for a long time, the user will lose confidence, so try not to use NdFeB neodymium in the new design.

In the field of electronic products, including the mobile phone, speaker, optical drive and other application markets, although the number is large, but the price sensitivity is very high, the price increase of magnetic steel is difficult to accept, users use the method of reducing design requirements to save costs. In the field of wind power generation, due to the large demand for magnetic steel by users, the cost burden directly affects the user's own market development, and more and more alternatives are adopted in the design, such as doubly-fed fans.

In the field of magnetic resonance, due to the rising cost of permanent magnets, the share of superconducting magnetic resonance is increased, affecting the demand for some permanent magnets. In addition, various applications such as industrial motors, traction machines, and magnetic separators are affected by price fluctuations to varying degrees, and some high-end users have the ability to pass on costs downstream.

Mid- and low-end customers have temporarily withdrawn from the application of NdFeB neodymium.

Japan is Bonded Magnetic Materials Association is CEO Harada Yoshida said that although the application of sintered and bonded NdFeB neodymium magnets in the industrial field is very important, the original design cannot be changed in a short time, but if the cost of raw materials is high and supply The unstable situation will continue, and the market prospects of the neodymium magnet will also become paralyzed and will be eliminated by the market.

In response to the rare earth crisis, the Japanese government, universities and the rare earth industry are seeking new rare earth resources, using neodymium magnet substitutes, reducing the amount of rare earths, reducing the use of antimony and developing high-performance magnets that do not contain rare earths.

Professor Takemoto of Hokkaido University said that an electric motor that does not use rare earth has been developed to replace the 50 kW rare earth motor used in Toyota Hybrid.

Professor Sugimoto of Tohoku University in Japan has also developed three techniques to reduce the amount of strontium, which has successfully reduced the use of strontium by more than 50%. At present, Hitachi, Shin-Etsu Chemical and TDK, the world's largest NdFeB neodymium manufacturer, have begun to adopt the above technology.

The future of NdFeB neodymium Although downstream manufacturers are looking for alternatives to NdFeB neodymium, it does not mean that NdFeB neodymium has become a sunset industry.

Due to sluggish demand, the price of rare earth products has dropped back to 300,000 to 40,000 yuan per ton. According to industry news, the reasonable price of rare earth is about 500,000 yuan per ton. As long as it does not exceed 700,000 yuan, the downstream NdFeB neodymium products will not exit the market due to high prices.

Harada Yoshiki also believes that since neodymium magnets are an important industrial material in the world, the magnetic properties of neodymium magnets are very good and it is difficult to transfer them from rare earths to other elements. And the rare earth resources that have been discovered around the world can provide a stable supply, and the rare earth crisis in the past two years will not happen again.

Starting in August last year, the price of rare earth began to decline. Some Japanese companies have begun to redevelop the application of neodymium magnets. Harada Yoshida said that in order to obtain a stable supply of rare earth and labor, Japanese magnet manufacturers have transferred magnet production to China and other countries with rare earth resources.

The worst year of NdFeB neodymium has passed, and the future NdFeB neodymium is still a sunrise industry. However, the current situation of overcapacity will further restrict the development of the NdFeB neodymium industry.

At present, there are more than 390 domestic NdFeB neodymium producers, and there are only 64 in Shanxi Province. In 2011, China's NdFeB neodymium capacity was as high as 260,000 tons, but the demand was only about 120,000 tons. Nowadays, the NdFeB neodymium industry is still investing heavily in various places, and the phenomenon of overcapacity will further intensify.

The most terrible thing is that China's high-end NdFeB neodymium capacity is insufficient, and the low-end NdFeB neodymium capacity is seriously overcapacity. At present, the world's high-end NdFeB neodymium products account for only about 30% of NdFeB neodymium products.

China should develop high-end NdFeB neodymium, but now many local investments are swarming and there is no real core technology, especially state-owned enterprises.

It is hoped that the national policy level will find a reasonable balance between protecting resources and promoting the development of the applied industry. Maintaining a reasonable price and maintaining relative stability of rare earth raw materials is the fundamental prerequisite for the healthy development of the rare earth permanent magnet industry.

Now 2018 is completely different, especially for the Xiamen Everbeen magnet, which has won a lot of reputation.

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